Changing Hudson Project

The Changing Hudson Project curriculum was developed by scientists and educators at Cary to help students understand how the Hudson River changes over time. By collaborating with teachers, scientists, and management agencies, the curriculum has grown to include a wide range of topics that engage students with visualizations, readings, investigations, and actual scientific data.

Pollution: Eutrophication in the Hudson River

Objectives

Students will know the history of nutrient loading in the Hudson River, the consequences, and be able to recommend ways to reduce the levels of nitrogen and phosphorous in the future.

Lesson Overview

1. Students will discuss the implications of nutrient pollution on aquatic ecosystems. 2. Students will read and answer questions.

Time: 
One 45-minute period
Setting: 
Classroom
Materials
  • Copies of worksheet
Procedure

Engage: Ask: What are the implications of high levels of nutrients in an aquatic system? Based on their experience with previous lessons, they should be able to answer this question. Ask: Do you think the Hudson is eutrophic? How could you find out?
 

Explore: Students will use the accompanying reading and graphs to answer a variety of questions about the nutrient levels in the Hudson River.
 

Explain: The Hudson River has always had problems with pollution, but the focus has shifted in the last twenty years from toxic substances to the control of nutrient pollution and consequent eutrophication. More than sixty percent of coastal waters in the U.S. are moderately to severely degraded by nutrient pollution, most of which originates in the interior of the U.S. Eutrophication from excess nutrients leads to decreasing biodiversity, increasing frequency of algal blooms, and degradation of water quality due to reduced dissolved oxygen levels. In the Hudson River, primary productivity has increased dramatically since the 1970s, and is considered eutrophic.
 

Extend: Students could research connections with human health.
 

Evaluate: Collect student answers to the reading.

 

References:
Howarth, R.W., Swaney, D., Butler, T.J., and Marino, R. 2000. Climatic control on eutrophication of the Hudson River estuary. Ecosystems. 3:210-215.

Howarth, R., Anderson, D., Cloern, J., Elfring, C., Hopkinson, C., Lapointe, B., Malone, T., Marcus, N., McGlathery, K., Sharpley, A., and D. Walker. 2000. Nutrient Pollution of Coastal Rivers, Bays, and Seas. Issues in Ecology. No. 7.

Howarth, R.W., Marino R., Swaney D., and E. W. Boyer. 2006. Wastewater and Watershed Influences on Primary Productivity and Oxygen Dynamics in the Lower Hudson River Estuary, in The Hudson River Estuary, Levinton & Waldman, editors. Cambridge Press.
 

Lesson Resources
NYS Standards
MST 1 - Mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design
MST 3- Mathematics in real-world settings
MST 4- Physical setting, living environment and nature of science
MST 6- Interconnectedness of mathematics, science, and technology (modeling, systems, scale, change, equilibrium, optimization)
Benchmarks for Science Literacy
1B Scientific Inquiry
2C Mathematical Inquiry
4B The Earth
11A Systems
11C Constancy and Change
12B Computation and Estimation
12C Manipulation and Observation
12D Communication Skills

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