The Institute communicates its scientific and educational information in a number of ways. One major outlet is peer-reviewed publications and reports.  Cary Institute staff regularly publish in the best-rated journals in their respective fields.

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Book Chapter
A. J. Gold and P. M. Groffman, “Leaching of agrichemicals from suburban areas”, in K. D. Racke (ed.). Pesticides in Urban Environments: Fate and Significance, 1993, p. 182-190.
E. A. Holland, R. Boone, J. Greenberg, P. M. Groffman, and G. P. Robertson, “Measurement of soil CO2, N2O and CH4 exchange”, in G. P. Robertson, C. S. Bledsoe, D. C. Coleman, and P. Sollins (eds.). Standard Soil Methods for Long Term Ecological Research, 1999, p. 185-201.
P. M. Groffman, A. J. Gold, D. Q. Kellogg, and K. Addy, “Mechanisms, rates and assessment of N2O in groundwater, riparian zones and rivers”, in J. van Ham, A. P. M. Baede, R. Guicherit, J. G. F. M. Williams-Jacobse (eds.). Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases: Scientific Understanding, Control Options and Policy Aspects, 2002, p. 159-166.
P. M. Groffman, E. Zaady, and M. Shachak, “Microbial contribution to biodiversity at organism, landscape and ecosystem scales”, in M. Shachak, J. Gosz, S. T. A. Pickett, and A. Perevolotsky (eds.). Biodiversity in Drylands: Toward a Unified Framework, 2004, p. 109-121.
P. M. Groffman, “Nitrogen balances at ecosystem, landscape, regional and global scales”, in J. Schepers and W. Raun (eds). Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils, 2008, p. 731-758.
P. M. Groffman and E. J. Rosi-Marshall, “The Nitrogen Cycle”, in K. C. Weathers, D. L. Strayer and G. E. Likens (eds.). Fundamentals of Ecosystem Science, 2012, p. 137-158.
P. M. Groffman, “Nitrogen in the environment”, in M. E. Sumner (ed.). Handbook of Soil Science, 1999, p. C190-200.
G. P. Robertson and P. M. Groffman, “Nitrogen transformations”, in E. A. Paul (ed.). Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry, Third Edition, 2007, p. 341-364.
P. M. Groffman, A. J. Gold, D. Q. Kellogg, and K. Addy, “Nitrous oxide emissions derived from N leaching”, in S. O. Peterson and J. E. Olesen (eds.). Greenhouse Gas Inventories for Agriculture in the Nordic Countries, 2002, p. 143-155.
A. J. Gold, P. M. Groffman, K. Addy, D. Q. Kellogg, and A. E. Rosenblatt, “The role of landscape setting in riparian groundwater nitrate removal”, in P. J. Wiggington, Jr. and R. L. Beshta (eds.). Riparian Ecology and Management in Multi-Land Use Watersheds; Proceedings, 2000, p. 113-117.
G. P. Robertson, et al., “Soil carbon and nitrogen availability: nitrogen mineralization, nitrification and carbon turnover”, in G. P. Robertson, C. S. Bledsoe, D. C. Coleman, and P. Sollins (eds.). Standard Soil Methods for Long Term Ecological Research, 1999, p. 258-271.
P. M. Groffman, “Soil microbiology: contributions from the gene to the global scale”, in T. Sims (ed.). Agricultural Research in the Northeastern United States: A Critical Review by Soil and Crop Scientists, 1993, p. 19-26.
P. M. Groffman and C. G. Jones, “Soil processes and global change: will invertebrates make a difference?”, in D. C. Coleman and P. F. Hendrix (eds.). Invertebrates as Webmasters in Ecosystems, 2000, p. 313-326.
P. M. Groffman and M. L. Pace, “Synthesis: What kind of discipline is this, anyhow?”, in M. L. Pace and P. M. Groffman (eds.). Successes, Limitations, and Frontiers in Ecosystem Science, 1998, p. 473-481.
R. V. Pouyat, K. T. Belt, D. E. Pataki, P. M. Groffman, J. Hom, and L. E. Band, “Urban land-use change effects on biogeochemical cycles”, in P. Canadell, D. Pataki and L. Pitelka (eds.). Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World, 2007, p. 45-58.
Journal Article
S. M. Raciti, et al., “Accumulation of Carbon and Nitrogen in Residential Soils with Different Land-Use Histories”, Ecosystems, vol. 14, p. 287-297, 2011.
P. M. Groffman and R. J. Wagenet, “Advances and pitfalls in translating information across scales”, Proc. 15th World Congr. Soil Sci., vol. 6a, p. 662-681, 1994.
A. J. Gold, et al., “Advancing water resource management in agricultural, rural, and urbanizing watersheds: Why land-grant universities matter”, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, vol. 68, no. 4, p. 337 - 348, 2013.
T. R. Anderson, C. L. Goodale, P. M. Groffman, and T. M. Walter, “Assessing denitrification from seasonally saturated soils in an agricultural landscape: A farm-scale mass-balance approach”, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, vol. 189, p. 60 - 69, 2014.
C. Polsky, et al., “Assessing the homogenization of urban land management with an application to US residential lawn care”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 111, no. 12, p. 4432 - 4437, 2014.
P. M. Groffman, “Assessment and importance of denitrification as a source of soil nitrogen loss in tropical agroecosystems”, Fert. Res., vol. 42, p. 139-148, 1995.
A. J. Burgin, J. G. Lazar, P. M. Groffman, A. J. Gold, and D. Q. Kellogg, “Balancing nitrogen retention ecosystem services and greenhouse gas disservices at the landscape scale”, Ecological Engineering, vol. 56, p. 26 - 35, 2013.
J. G. Lazar, K. Addy, A. J. Gold, P. M. Groffman, R. McKinney, and D. Q. Kellogg, “Beaver Ponds: Resurgent Nitrogen Sinks for Rural Watersheds in the Northeastern United States”, Journal of Environment Quality, 2015.
S. T. A. Pickett, et al., “Beyond urban legends: An emerging framework of urban ecology, as illustrated by the Baltimore Ecosystem Study”, BioScience, vol. 58, p. 139-150, 2008.
J. N. Boyer and P. M. Groffman, “Bioavailability of water extractable organic carbon fractions in forest and agricultural soil profiles”, Soil Biol. Biochem., vol. 28, p. 783-790, 1996.


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