The Institute communicates its scientific and educational information in a number of ways. One major outlet is peer-reviewed publications and reports.  Cary Institute staff regularly publish in the best-rated journals in their respective fields.

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Journal Article
P. M. Groffman and M. K. Crawford, “Denitrification potential in urban riparian zones”, J. Environ. Qual., vol. 32, p. 1144-1149, 2003.
D. Gift, P. M. Groffman, S. S. Kaushal, and P. M. Mayer, “Denitrification Potential, Root Biomass, and Organic Matter in Degraded and Restored Urban Riparian Zones”, Restor. Ecol., vol. 18, p. 113-120, 2010.
E. R. Waters, J. L. Morse, N. D. Bettez, and P. M. Groffman, “Differential Carbon and Nitrogen Controls of Denitrification in Riparian Zones and Streams along an Urban to Exurban Gradient”, Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 43, no. 3, 2014.
J. Durán, et al., “Differential sensitivity to climate change of C and N cycling processes across soil horizons in a northern hardwood forest”, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 107, p. 77 - 84, 2017.
M. V. Kulkarni, A. J. Burgin, P. M. Groffman, and J. B. Yavitt, “Direct flux and 15N tracer methods for measuring denitrification in forest soils”, Biogeochemistry, 2013.
G. V. Voos and P. M. Groffman, “Dissipation of 2,4-D and dicamba in a heterogeneous landscape”, Appl. Soil Ecol., vol. 5, p. 181-187, 1997.
P. A. Jacinthe, P. M. Groffman, and A. J. Gold, “Dissolved Organic Carbon Dynamics in a Riparian Aquifer”, Journal of Environment Quality, vol. 32, no. 4, p. 1365, 2003.
J. P. Kaye, P. M. Groffman, N. B. Grimm, L. A. Baker, and R. V. Pouyat, “A distinct urban biogeochemistry?”, Trends Res. Ecol. Evol., vol. 21, p. 192-199, 2006.
P. M. Groffman, et al., “Down by the riverside: Urban riparian ecology”, Front. Ecol. Environ., vol. 6, p. 315-321, 2003.
S. T. A. Pickett, et al., “Dynamic heterogeneity: a framework to promote ecological integration and hypothesis generation in urban systems”, Urban Ecosystems, vol. 20, no. 1, p. 1 - 14, 2017.
J. A. Dittman, C. T. Driscoll, P. M. Groffman, and T. J. Fahey, “Dynamics of nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest”, Ecology, vol. 88, p. 1153-1166, 2007.
T. J. Clough, K. Addy, D. Q. Kellogg, B. L. Nowicki, A. J. Gold, and P. M. Groffman, “Dynamics of nitrous oxide in groundwater at the aquatic-terrestrial interface”, Global Change Biol., vol. 13, p. 1528-1537, 2007.
P. M. Groffman, D. R. Zak, S. Christensen, A. R. Mosier, and J. M. Tiedje, “Early spring nitrogen dynamics in a temperate forest landscape”, Ecology, vol. 74, p. 1579-1585, 1993.
D. A. Steinberg, R. V. Pouyat, R. W. Parmelee, and P. M. Groffman, “Earthworm activity and nitrogen mineralization rates along an urban-rural land use gradient”, Soil Biol. Biochem., vol. 29, p. 427-430, 1997.
T. J. Fahey, et al., “Earthworm effects on the conversion of litter C and N into soil organic matter in a sugar maple forest”, Ecosystems, 2011.
T. J. Fahey, et al., “Earthworm effects on the incorporation of litter C and N into soil organic matter in a sugar maple forest”, Ecological Applications, vol. 23, no. 5, p. 1185 - 1201, 2013.
M. C. Fisk, T. J. Fahey, P. M. Groffman, and P. J. Bohlen, “Earthworm invasion, fine root distributions and soil respiration in north temperate forests”, Ecosystems, vol. 7, p. 55-62, 2004.
P. M. Groffman, et al., “Earthworms increase soil microbial biomass carrying capacity and nitrogen retention in northern hardwood forests”, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 87, p. 51 - 58, 2015.
T. J. Fahey, et al., “Earthworms, litter and soil carbon in a northern hardwood forest”, Biogeochemistry, vol. 114, no. 1-3, p. 269 - 280, 2013.
H. A. Ewing, et al., “Earthworms Reduce Biotic 15-Nitrogen Retention in Northern Hardwood Forests”, Ecosystems, vol. 18, no. 2, p. 328 - 342, 2015.
P. M. Groffman, et al., “Ecological homogenization of residential macrosystems”, Nature Ecology & Evolution, vol. 1, no. 7, p. 0191, 2017.
P. M. Groffman, et al., “Ecological homogenization of urban USA”, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 74 - 81, 2014.
P. M. Groffman, et al., “Ecological thresholds: The key to successful environmental management or an important concept with no practical application?”, Ecosystems, vol. 9, p. 1-13, 2006.
P. J. Bohlen, P. M. Groffman, T. J. Fahey, and M. C. Fisk, “Ecosystem consequences of exotic earthworm invasion of north temperate forests”, Ecosystems, vol. 7, p. 1-13, 2004.
M. J. McDonnell, et al., “Ecosystem processes along an urban-to-rural gradient”, Urban Ecosyst., vol. 1, p. 21-36, 1997.


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