The Institute communicates its scientific and educational information in a number of ways. One major outlet is peer-reviewed publications and reports.  Cary Institute staff regularly publish in the best-rated journals in their respective fields.

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P. M. Groffman, D. R. Zak, S. Christensen, A. R. Mosier, and J. M. Tiedje, “Early spring nitrogen dynamics in a temperate forest landscape”, Ecology, vol. 74, p. 1579-1585, 1993.
D. A. Steinberg, R. V. Pouyat, R. W. Parmelee, and P. M. Groffman, “Earthworm activity and nitrogen mineralization rates along an urban-rural land use gradient”, Soil Biol. Biochem., vol. 29, p. 427-430, 1997.
T. J. Fahey, et al., “Earthworm effects on the conversion of litter C and N into soil organic matter in a sugar maple forest”, Ecosystems, 2011.
T. J. Fahey, et al., “Earthworm effects on the incorporation of litter C and N into soil organic matter in a sugar maple forest”, Ecological Applications, vol. 23, no. 5, p. 1185 - 1201, 2013.
M. C. Fisk, T. J. Fahey, P. M. Groffman, and P. J. Bohlen, “Earthworm invasion, fine root distributions and soil respiration in north temperate forests”, Ecosystems, vol. 7, p. 55-62, 2004.
P. M. Groffman, et al., “Earthworms increase soil microbial biomass carrying capacity and nitrogen retention in northern hardwood forests”, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 87, p. 51 - 58, 2015.
T. J. Fahey, et al., “Earthworms, litter and soil carbon in a northern hardwood forest”, Biogeochemistry, vol. 114, no. 1-3, p. 269 - 280, 2013.
H. A. Ewing, et al., “Earthworms Reduce Biotic 15-Nitrogen Retention in Northern Hardwood Forests”, Ecosystems, vol. 18, no. 2, p. 328 - 342, 2015.
P. M. Groffman, “Ecological constraints on the ability of precision agriculture to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems”, in Precision Agriculture: Spatial and Temporal Variability of Environmental Quality. Ciba Foundation Symposium 210., 1997, p. 52-64.
P. M. Groffman, et al., “Ecological homogenization of urban USA”, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 74 - 81, 2014.
P. M. Groffman, et al., “Ecological thresholds: The key to successful environmental management or an important concept with no practical application?”, Ecosystems, vol. 9, p. 1-13, 2006.
P. J. Bohlen, P. M. Groffman, T. J. Fahey, and M. C. Fisk, “Ecosystem consequences of exotic earthworm invasion of north temperate forests”, Ecosystems, vol. 7, p. 1-13, 2004.
M. Shachak, R. B. Waide, and P. M. Groffman, “Ecosystem processes: A link between species and landscape diversity”, in M. Shachak, J. Gosz, S. T. A. Pickett, and A. Perevolotsky (eds.). Biodiversity in Drylands: Toward a Unified Framework, 2004, p. 220-232.
M. J. McDonnell, et al., “Ecosystem processes along an urban-to-rural gradient”, Urban Ecosyst., vol. 1, p. 21-36, 1997.
P. M. Groffman, P. Capel, K. Riiters, and W. Yang, “Ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes”, in M. Schnepf and C. Cox (eds.). Managing Agricultural Landscapes for Environmental Quality: Strengthening the Science Base, 2007, p. 3-17.
K. L. Larson, et al., “Ecosystem services in managing residential landscapes: priorities, value dimensions, and cross-regional patterns”, Urban Ecosystems, 2015.
P. M. Groffman, et al., “Ecosystems, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Services”, in Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment., J. M. Melillo, T. C. Richmond, and G. W. Yohe, Eds. Washington, D. C.: , 2014, p. 195-219.
A. Balaria, C. E. Johnson, P. M. Groffman, and M. C. Fisk, “Effects of calcium silicate treatment on the composition of forest floor organic matter in a northern hardwood forest stand”, Biogeochemistry, vol. 122, no. 2-3, p. 313 - 326, 2015.
A. Balaria, C. E. Johnson, and P. M. Groffman, “Effects of calcium treatment on forest floor organic matter composition along an elevation gradient”, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, vol. 44, no. 8, p. 969 - 976, 2014.
P. M. Mayer, E. A. Striz, R. Shedlock, E. J. Doheny, and P. M. Groffman, “The effects of ecosystem restoration on nitrogen processing in an urban mid-Atlantic Piedmont stream”, in K. G. Renard, S. A. McElroy, W. J. Gburek, E. H. Canfield, and R. L. Scott (eds.). First Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds, October 2003., 2004, p. 536-541.
E. R. Suárez, T. J. Fahey, P. M. Groffman, P. J. Bohlen, and M. C. Fisk, “Effects of exotic earthworms on soil phosphorus cycling in two broadleaf temperate forests”, Ecosystems, vol. 7, p. 28-44, 2004.
P. M. Groffman, A. J. Gold, and G. Howard, “Effects of hydrologic tracers on soil microbial activities”, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., vol. 59, p. 478-481, 1995.
Y. Savva, K. Szlavecz, R. V. Pouyat, P. M. Groffman, and G. Heisler, “Effects of Land Use and Vegetation Cover on Soil Temperature in an Urban Ecosystem”, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., vol. 74, p. 469-480, 2010.
P. M. Groffman, C. T. Driscoll, T. J. Fahey, J. P. Hardy, R. D. Fitzhugh, and G. L. Tierney, “Effects of mild winter freezing on soil nitrogen and carbon dynamics in a northern hardwood forest”, Biogeochemistry, vol. 56, p. 191-213, 2001.
S. E. G. Findlay, P. M. Groffman, and S. Dye, “Effects of Phragmites australis removal on marsh nutrient cycling”, Wetl. Ecol. Manage, vol. 11, p. 157-165, 2003.


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