Publications

The Institute communicates its scientific and educational information in a number of ways. One major outlet is peer-reviewed publications and reports.  Cary Institute staff regularly publish in the best-rated journals in their respective fields.

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Book Chapter
G. E. Likens, T. J. Butler, and M. A. Rury, “Acid Rain”, in Encyclopedia of Global Studies, 2011.
T. J. Butler and G. E. Likens, “Acid Rain”, in Encyclopedia of Environmetrics , 2nd ed., A. H. El-Shaarawi and W. W. Piegorsch, Eds. Chichester, UK: , 2013.
K. C. Weathers, G. E. Likens, T. J. Butler, and A. Elliott, “Acid Rain”, in W. Rom (ed.). Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 4th ed., 2006, p. 1549-1561.
C. T. Driscoll, et al., “Acidic deposition in the northeastern United States: Sources and inputs, ecosystem effects and management strategies”, in J. M. Gunn, R. J. Steedman, and R. A. Ryder (eds.), 2004, p. 159-190.
Journal Article
C. T. Driscoll, et al., “Acidic deposition in the northeastern United States: sources and inputs, ecosystem effects, and management strategies”, BioScience, vol. 51, p. 180-198, 2001.
T. J. Butler, “Composition of particles dry deposited to an inert surface at Ithaca, New York”, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 22, p. 895-900, 1988.
T. J. Butler and G. E. Likens, “A direct comparison of throughfall plus stemflow to estimates of dry and total deposition for sulfur and nitrogen”, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 29, p. 1253-1265, 1995.
T. J. Butler, C. V. Cogbill, and G. E. Likens, “Effect of climatology on precipitation acidity”, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., vol. 65, p. 639-640, 1984.
T. J. Butler, G. E. Likens, F. M. Vermeylen, and B. J. B. Stunder, “The impact of changing nitrogen oxide emissions on wet and dry nitrogen deposition in the northeastern USA”, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 39, p. 4851-4862, 2005.
T. J. Butler and G. E. Likens, “The impact of changing regional emissions on precipitation chemistry in the eastern United States”, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 25A, p. 305-315, 1991.
G. E. Likens, T. J. Butler, and D. C. Buso, “Long- and short-term changes in sulfate deposition: effects of The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments”, Biogeochemistry, vol. 52, p. 1-11, 2001.
G. E. Likens, D. C. Buso, and T. J. Butler, “Long-term relationships between SO2 and NOx emissions and SO42- and NO3- concentration in bulk deposition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire”, J. Environ. Monitor, vol. 7, p. 964-968, 2005.
A. Gilliland, T. J. Butler, and G. E. Likens, “Monthly and annual bias in weekly (NADP/NTN) versus daily (AIRMoN) precipitation chemistry data in the eastern USA”, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 36, p. 5197-5206, 2002.
D. P. Swaney, R. W. Howarth, and T. J. Butler, “A novel approach for estimating ecosystem production and respiration in estuaries: application to the oligohaline and mesohaline Hudson River”, Limnol. Oceanogr., vol. 44, p. 1509-1521, 1999.
T. J. Butler, M. Cohen, F. M. Vermeylen, G. E. Likens, R. Artz, and D. Schmeltz, “Regional precipitation mercury trends in the eastern USA, 1998-2005: Declines in the Northeast and Midwest, no trend in the Southeast”, Atmos. Environ., vol. 42, p. 1582-1592, 2008.
T. J. Butler, G. E. Likens, and B. J. B. Stunder, “Regional-scale impacts of Phase I of The Clean Air Act Amendments in the USA: the relation between emissions and concentrations, both wet and dry”, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 35, p. 1015-1028, 2001.
T. J. Butler, G. E. Likens, F. M. Vermeylen, and B. J. B. Stunder, “The relation between NOx emissions and precipitation NO3- in the eastern USA”, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 37, p. 2093-2104, 2003.
T. J. Butler, et al., “Response of ozone and nitrate to stationary source NOx emission reductions in the eastern USA”, Atmos. Environ., vol. 45, p. 1084-1094, 2011.
C. T. Driscoll, et al., “Response to W. E. Sharpe's "Acid deposition explains sugar maple decline in the East"”, BioScience, vol. 52, p. 5-6, 2002.
G. E. Likens, K. C. Weathers, T. J. Butler, and D. C. Buso, “Solving the acid rain problem”, Science, vol. 282, p. 1991-1992, 1998.
G. E. Likens, L. O. Hedin, and T. J. Butler, “Some long-term precipitation chemistry patterns at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: extremes and averages”, Verh. Int. Ver. Limnol., vol. 24, p. 128-135, 1990.
L. O. Hedin, et al., “Steep declines in atmospheric base cations in regions of Europe and North America”, Nature, vol. 367, p. 351-354, 1994.
R. W. Howarth, D. P. Swaney, R. Marino, T. J. Butler, and C. R. Chu, “Turbulence does not prevent nitrogen fixation by plankton in estuaries and coastal seas (reply to the comment by Paerl, et al.)”, Limnol. Oceanogr., vol. 40, p. 639-643, 1995.
C. V. Cogbill, G. E. Likens, and T. J. Butler, “Uncertainties in historical aspects of acid precipitation: getting it straight”, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 18, p. 2261-2270, 1984.
T. J. Butler and G. E. Likens, “Weekly and daily precipitation chemistry network comparisons in the eastern U.S.: NADP/NTN vs. MAP3S/AIRMon”, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 32, p. 3749-3765, 1998.

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