Long-Term Biogeochemistry

As co-founder of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study, Dr. Gene Likens began continuous studies of precipitation and streamwater chemistry in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in 1963. These studies continue today as the longest continuous studies of this sort in the world. All of the major cations and anions in precipitation, stream and lake water are analyzed in weekly samples. Long-term trends based on these data are used to evaluate environmental problems, such as acid rain, nitrogen saturation and eutrophication. Recently, monographs have been written and published utilizing these data on the biogeochemistry of major ions (potassium, calcium, sulfur and carbon) (Likens et al. 1994, 1998, 2002; Lovett et al. 2005, Fahey et al. 2005).

In combination with cooperators in the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study, these long-term data have been and are used for examining critical questions, identifying extreme events, generating new research questions, evaluating experimental manipulations, and detecting environmental change (Likens 2004).




  • Likens, G. E., C. T. Driscoll, D. C. Buso, T. G. Siccama, C. E. Johnson, G. M. Lovett, D. F. Ryan, T. J. Fahey, and W. A. Reiners. 1994. The biogeochemistry of potassium at Hubbard Brook. Biogeochemistry 25:61-125.
  • Likens, G. E., C. T. Driscoll, D. C. Buso, T. G. Siccama, C. E. Johnson, G. M. Lovett, T. J. Fahey, W. A. Reiners, D. F. Ryan, C. W. Martin, and S. W. Bailey. 1998. The biogeochemistry of calcium at Hubbard Brook. Biogeochemistry 41:89-173.
  • Likens, G. E., C. T. Driscoll, D. C. Buso, M. J. Mitchell, G. M. Lovett, S. W. Bailey, T. G. Siccama, W. A. Reiners, and C. Alewell. 2002. The biogeochemistry of sulfur at Hubbard Brook. Biogeochemistry 60(3):235-316.
  • Lovett, G. M., G. E. Likens, D. C. Buso, C. T. Driscoll, and S. W. Bailey. 2005. The biogeochemistry of chlorine at Hubbard Brook. Biogeochemistry 72:191-232.
  • Fahey, T. J., T. G. Siccama, C. T. Driscoll, G. E. Likens, J. Campbell, C. E. Johnson, J. D. Aber, J. J. Cole, M. C. Fisk, P. M. Groffman, R. T. Holmes, P. A. Schwarz, and R. D. Yanai. 2005. The biogeochemistry of carbon at Hubbard Brook. Biogeochemistry 75(1):109-176
  • Likens, G. E. 2004. Biogeochemistry: Some opportunities and challenges for the future. Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus 4(2-3):5-24.
  • Likens, G. E. 2004. Some perspectives on long-term biogeochemical research from the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study. Ecology 85(9):2355-2362.

Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies | Millbrook, New York 12545 | Tel (845) 677-5343

Privacy Policy Copyright © 2018