Publications

The Institute communicates its scientific and educational information in a number of ways. One major outlet is peer-reviewed publications and reports.  Cary Institute staff regularly publish in the best-rated journals in their respective fields.

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Journal Article
T. J. Butler and G. E. Likens, “Weekly and daily precipitation chemistry network comparisons in the eastern U.S.: NADP/NTN vs. MAP3S/AIRMon”, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 32, p. 3749-3765, 1998.
C. V. Cogbill, G. E. Likens, and T. J. Butler, “Uncertainties in historical aspects of acid precipitation: getting it straight”, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 18, p. 2261-2270, 1984.
R. W. Howarth, D. P. Swaney, R. Marino, T. J. Butler, and C. R. Chu, “Turbulence does not prevent nitrogen fixation by plankton in estuaries and coastal seas (reply to the comment by Paerl, et al.)”, Limnol. Oceanogr., vol. 40, p. 639-643, 1995.
L. O. Hedin, et al., “Steep declines in atmospheric base cations in regions of Europe and North America”, Nature, vol. 367, p. 351-354, 1994.
G. E. Likens, L. O. Hedin, and T. J. Butler, “Some long-term precipitation chemistry patterns at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: extremes and averages”, Verh. Int. Ver. Limnol., vol. 24, p. 128-135, 1990.
G. E. Likens, K. C. Weathers, T. J. Butler, and D. C. Buso, “Solving the acid rain problem”, Science, vol. 282, p. 1991-1992, 1998.
C. T. Driscoll, et al., “Response to W. E. Sharpe's "Acid deposition explains sugar maple decline in the East"”, BioScience, vol. 52, p. 5-6, 2002.
T. J. Butler, et al., “Response of ozone and nitrate to stationary source NOx emission reductions in the eastern USA”, Atmos. Environ., vol. 45, p. 1084-1094, 2011.
T. J. Butler, G. E. Likens, F. M. Vermeylen, and B. J. B. Stunder, “The relation between NOx emissions and precipitation NO3- in the eastern USA”, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 37, p. 2093-2104, 2003.
T. J. Butler, G. E. Likens, and B. J. B. Stunder, “Regional-scale impacts of Phase I of The Clean Air Act Amendments in the USA: the relation between emissions and concentrations, both wet and dry”, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 35, p. 1015-1028, 2001.
T. J. Butler, M. Cohen, F. M. Vermeylen, G. E. Likens, R. S. Artz, and D. Schmeltz, “Regional precipitation mercury trends in the eastern USA, 1998-2005: Declines in the Northeast and Midwest, no trend in the Southeast”, Atmos. Environ., vol. 42, p. 1582-1592, 2008.
D. P. Swaney, R. W. Howarth, and T. J. Butler, “A novel approach for estimating ecosystem production and respiration in estuaries: application to the oligohaline and mesohaline Hudson River”, Limnol. Oceanogr., vol. 44, p. 1509-1521, 1999.
A. Gilliland, T. J. Butler, and G. E. Likens, “Monthly and annual bias in weekly (NADP/NTN) versus daily (AIRMoN) precipitation chemistry data in the eastern USA”, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 36, p. 5197-5206, 2002.
G. E. Likens, D. C. Buso, and T. J. Butler, “Long-term relationships between SO2 and NOx emissions and SO42- and NO3- concentration in bulk deposition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire”, J. Environ. Monitor, vol. 7, p. 964-968, 2005.
G. E. Likens, T. J. Butler, and D. C. Buso, “Long- and short-term changes in sulfate deposition: effects of The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments”, Biogeochemistry, vol. 52, p. 1-11, 2001.
T. J. Butler and G. E. Likens, “The impact of changing regional emissions on precipitation chemistry in the eastern United States”, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 25A, p. 305-315, 1991.
T. J. Butler, G. E. Likens, F. M. Vermeylen, and B. J. B. Stunder, “The impact of changing nitrogen oxide emissions on wet and dry nitrogen deposition in the northeastern USA”, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 39, p. 4851-4862, 2005.
T. J. Butler, C. V. Cogbill, and G. E. Likens, “Effect of climatology on precipitation acidity”, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., vol. 65, p. 639-640, 1984.
T. J. Butler and G. E. Likens, “A direct comparison of throughfall plus stemflow to estimates of dry and total deposition for sulfur and nitrogen”, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 29, p. 1253-1265, 1995.
T. J. Butler, “Composition of particles dry deposited to an inert surface at Ithaca, New York”, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 22, p. 895-900, 1988.
C. T. Driscoll, et al., “Acidic deposition in the northeastern United States: sources and inputs, ecosystem effects, and management strategies”, BioScience, vol. 51, p. 180-198, 2001.

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