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Chemistry of Air, Precipitation & Streamwater

A key component of our program is long-term monitoring of the chemistry of our environment. Our monitoring allows us to understand the dynamics pollution produced in industrial processes, especially pollution from the burning of fossil fuels such as coal and gasoline. Our program includes several methods that cover a broad range of pollutants.

Data

For a complete description of measurements, please see the Meta Data | For monthly and yearly summaries go to Data Summaries | For access to data go to Archived Data

Precipitation Chemistry

We collect precipitation chemistry data with an instrument that uses a sensor that causes a cover to open, revealing a clean bucket when precipitation occurs and closes when the precipitation ceases. The instrument collects rain, snow and ice. Samples are collected after every event and analyzed at the Cary Institute for pH and a suite of other constituents that are important for understanding our atmosphere. This is our longest data record; we have continuous data from 1983 to present.

Air Chemistry

Our air quality is monitored with a system similar to that used by the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET). We collect air samples with low-volume filter packs, which allow us to monitor particles and gases that are important components of acid deposition. We also monitor ammonia concentration as part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), Ammonia Monitoring Network. In addition, we monitor ground-level ozone, a key component of smog, in partnership with the New York State Department of Conservation and continuous carbon dioxide with a Licor LI-840 CO2 analyzer. Our filter pack data and ozone data are from 1988 to present and our ammonia and CO2 data are from 2009 to present.

Streamwater Chemistry

Our stream monitoring program is a long-term data collection program that allows us to understand local as well as regional changes in the environment feeding our stream. The program began in 1985 and is the longest continuous chemistry dataset about the quality of streamwater in our region. Our program includes monthly grab samples collected at 2 sites on the East Branch of Wappinger Creek on the Cary Institute property. Stream samples are collected at the end of every month at low flow and are analyzed in our analytical lab for a suite of constituents that are important to ecosystem function. Additionally, we collect continuous temperature, stage height and specific conductance data at 15-minute intervals at one of the 2 sites.

About Our Stream

The stream is a tributary to the main branch of Wappinger Creek, which flows into the Hudson River at Wappingers Falls. The creek as it passes through the Cary Institute property is a relatively clean, unimpaired forest stream. It harbors reproducing populations of brown trout as well as other important native fish and is habitat for breeding birds including common merganzer and wood duck. About 1.6 km upstream from our monitoring site is the Village of Millbrook sewage treatment plant. The Village of Millbrook (population 1400) and the roads in the watershed of the stream are important sources of road salt to the stream.

 

1984-2018 MONTHLY AVERAGE WET DEPOSITION (kg/ha)
MONTH H Ca Cl K Mg Na NH4-N NO3-N PO4 SO4 SO4-S NH4-N+NO3-N Volume_cm
1 0.023 0.03 0.21 0.01 0.01 0.1 0.05 0.18 0.003 0.63 0.21 0.23 7.8
2 0.024 0.04 0.16 0.01 0.01 0.08 0.08 0.21 0.005 0.7 0.23 0.29 7.4
3 0.03 0.06 0.23 0.02 0.02 0.11 0.13 0.27 0.007 1.02 0.34 0.39 9.2
4 0.03 0.09 0.19 0.02 0.02 0.09 0.18 0.27 0.009 1.23 0.41 0.45 8.4
5 0.041 0.09 0.17 0.06 0.03 0.07 0.29 0.32 0.022 1.74 0.58 0.61 10.3
6 0.05 0.07 0.13 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.27 0.34 0.025 2.01 0.67 0.6 10.5
7 0.079 0.08 0.14 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.29 0.46 0.011 2.98 1 0.75 11.1
8 0.049 0.05 0.12 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.18 0.29 0.006 1.8 0.6 0.47 10.6
9 0.032 0.04 0.17 0.02 0.02 0.07 0.15 0.22 0.015 1.22 0.41 0.36 10.9
10 0.022 0.04 0.21 0.02 0.02 0.1 0.11 0.17 0.015 0.8 0.27 0.28 10.2
11 0.021 0.02 0.18 0.01 0.01 0.09 0.07 0.17 0.004 0.66 0.22 0.24 8.7
12 0.022 0.03 0.19 0.01 0.01 0.09 0.07 0.19 0.003 0.68 0.23 0.25 9.2
PRECIPITATION ANNUAL VOLUME-WEIGHTED MEAN CONCENTRATIONS (mg/L)
YEAR H Ca Cl K Mg Na NH4 NH4-N NO3 NO3-N PO4 PO4-P SO4
1984 0.051 0.11 0.21 0.09 0.04 0.09 0.37 0.29 1.56 0.35 0.035 0.011 2.07
1985 0.07 0.07 0.22 0.02 0.02 0.07 0.28 0.22 2.07 0.47 0.02 0.006 2.71
1986 0.071 0.04 0.2 0.01 0.02 0.06 0.25 0.19 1.73 0.39 0.017 0.006 2.59
1987 0.061 0.03 0.19 0.02 0.02 0.08 0.22 0.17 1.42 0.32 0.044 0.014 2.06
1988 0.085 0.07 0.22 0.02 0.02 0.07 0.33 0.26 2.08 0.47 0.021 0.007 3.18
1989 0.056 0.05 0.31 0.03 0.02 0.08 0.23 0.18 1.52 0.34 0.019 0.006 2.03
1990 0.053 0.04 0.22 0.02 0.02 0.09 0.19 0.15 1.54 0.35 0.012 0.004 1.87
1991 0.067 0.05 0.15 0.02 0.02 0.06 0.28 0.22 1.79 0.4 0.016 0.005 2.48
1992 0.057 0.04 0.24 0.02 0.02 0.1 0.21 0.16 1.67 0.38 0.011 0.004 2.07
1993 0.057 0.05 0.2 0.02 0.02 0.09 0.19 0.15 1.53 0.35 0.004 0.001 1.98
1994 0.052 0.06 0.17 0.01 0.02 0.07 0.2 0.16 1.5 0.34 0.004 0.001 1.88
1995 0.047 0.06 0.25 0.02 0.02 0.11 0.22 0.17 1.61 0.36 0.005 0.001 1.72
1996 0.042 0.06 0.23 0.02 0.02 0.11 0.19 0.15 1.51 0.34 0.003 0.001 1.51
1997 0.051 0.07 0.17 0.02 0.02 0.08 0.23 0.18 1.53 0.35 0.003 0.001 1.93
1998 0.044 0.06 0.13 0.02 0.02 0.06 0.22 0.17 1.37 0.31 0.004 0.001 1.6
1999 0.037 0.06 0.21 0.02 0.02 0.1 0.15 0.11 1.19 0.27 0.004 0.001 1.27
2000 0.045 0.07 0.16 0.02 0.02 0.08 0.22 0.17 1.5 0.34 0.008 0.003 1.64
2001 0.041 0.07 0.14 0.02 0.02 0.06 0.21 0.16 1.38 0.31 0.005 0.002 1.64
2002 0.034 0.07 0.12 0.05 0.02 0.05 0.3 0.24 1.21 0.27 0.069 0.022 1.41
2003 0.03 0.05 0.21 0.02 0.02 0.1 0.18 0.14 1.07 0.24 0.021 0.007 1.1
2004 0.038 0.05 0.14 0.04 0.02 0.06 0.24 0.19 1.13 0.26 0.008 0.002 1.48
2005 0.03 0.05 0.15 0.01 0.02 0.07 0.17 0.13 0.89 0.2 0.002 0.001 1.14
2006 0.031 0.06 0.27 0.02 0.03 0.14 0.18 0.14 0.94 0.21 0.008 0.003 1.35
2007 0.033 0.06 0.15 0.01 0.02 0.07 0.2 0.15 1.07 0.24 0.002 0.001 1.28
2008 0.033 0.07 0.19 0.02 0.02 0.1 0.19 0.15 1.1 0.25 0.002 0.001 1.23
2009 0.024 0.07 0.18 0.02 0.02 0.09 0.15 0.12 0.98 0.22 0.003 0.001 0.94
2010 0.017 0.06 0.29 0.02 0.02 0.14 0.14 0.1 0.73 0.17 0.003 0.001 0.58
2011 0.014 0.05 0.15 0.01 0.01 0.07 0.17 0.13 0.73 0.17 0.004 0.001 0.59
2012 0.018 0.08 0.21 0.09 0.02 0.12 0.24 0.19 0.96 0.22 0.003 0.001 0.68
2013 0.016 0.06 0.12 0.02 0.02 0.06 0.24 0.19 0.79 0.18 0.006 0.002 0.56
2014 0.014 0.07 0.18 0.01 0.02 0.1 0.21 0.16 0.76 0.17 0.005 0.002 0.52
2015 0.014 0.04 0.14 0.01 0.01 0.07 0.2 0.16 0.74 0.17 0.005 0.002 0.37
2016 0.011 0.07 0.25 0.01 0.02 0.12 0.22 0.17 0.86 0.19 0.005 0.002 0.4
2017 0.008 0.06 0.17 0.01 0.02 0.08 0.24 0.18 0.72 0.16 0.008 0.003 0.34
2018 0.007 0.05 0.15 0.01 0.02 0.07 0.17 0.13 0.61 0.14 0.009 0.003 0.25
PRECIPITATION 1984-2018 MONTHLY VOLUME-WEIGHTED MEAN CONCENTRATIONS (mg/L)
MONTH H Ca Cl K Mg Na NH4 NH4-N NO3 NO3-N PO4 PO4-P SO4
1 0.03 0.04 0.28 0.01 0.02 0.14 0.09 0.07 1.09 0.25 0.004 0.001 0.85
2 0.033 0.05 0.22 0.01 0.02 0.11 0.13 0.1 1.3 0.29 0.007 0.002 0.97
3 0.032 0.07 0.26 0.02 0.02 0.13 0.18 0.14 1.31 0.3 0.007 0.002 1.14
4 0.036 0.11 0.24 0.02 0.03 0.11 0.29 0.22 1.44 0.32 0.011 0.004 1.5
5 0.04 0.1 0.17 0.06 0.03 0.07 0.38 0.29 1.42 0.32 0.022 0.007 1.75
6 0.048 0.07 0.13 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.34 0.26 1.44 0.32 0.024 0.008 1.96
7 0.071 0.08 0.13 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.34 0.27 1.86 0.42 0.01 0.003 2.74
8 0.048 0.05 0.12 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.23 0.18 1.27 0.29 0.006 0.002 1.81
9 0.03 0.04 0.16 0.02 0.02 0.07 0.18 0.14 0.91 0.21 0.012 0.004 1.15
10 0.023 0.04 0.21 0.03 0.02 0.1 0.14 0.11 0.76 0.17 0.016 0.005 0.8
11 0.024 0.03 0.21 0.01 0.02 0.11 0.11 0.09 0.88 0.2 0.004 0.001 0.77
12 0.025 0.03 0.21 0.01 0.02 0.1 0.1 0.07 0.93 0.21 0.004 0.001 0.77
ANNUAL MEAN CONCENTRATIONS (mg/L), CONDUCTIVITY (µmho) & DISCHARGE (m^3/s) - Wappinger Creek, Fern Glen (Site 2)
YEAR H Ca Cl K Mg Na NH4 NO3 PO4 SO4 SiO2 Conductivity Q
1985 0.018 35.4 25.2 1.4 10 8.4 0.01 3.26 0.062 26 7.8 295 .
1986 0.016 32.2 15.8 1.2 9.2 8 0.02 3.06 0.066 16.4 6.6 264 0.9
1987 0.012 32.8 17.7 1.2 9.3 9.2 0.02 3.83 0.149 16.7 5.5 293 0.94
1988 0.013 31.3 18.5 1.2 8.8 9.4 0.01 3.17 0.092 16.1 5.3 268 1.14
1989 0.017 29.9 18 1.3 8.4 9.6 0.04 3.05 0.09 15.4 4.8 259 0.92
1990 0.009 31 18 1.2 8.7 10 0.02 3.33 0.073 14.5 4.9 266 1.43
1991 0.008 31 17.5 1.2 8.7 10.1 0.02 3.18 0.116 16.3 5 265
1992 0.007 33.4 20.3 1.2 9.5 11.1 0.02 3.69 0.122 13.9 4.3 287
1993 0.011 31.9 25.5 1.3 9.2 12.8 0.02 3.11 0.179 16.2 4 294 0.77
1994 0.011 31.9 24 1.1 8.6 12.6 0.01 1.92 0.068 14.1 5.6 284 1.07
1995 0.01 33.2 24.4 1.2 8.8 13.7 0.02 1.97 0.12 15.6 3.9 296 1.26
1996 0.01 30.4 25.1 0.9 7.9 13.6 0.01 1.02 0.015 13.5 3 274 1.22
1997 0.008 34.6 27.1 1.3 9.6 15.3 0.01 2.94 0.073 17.4 3.9 313 0.64
1998 0.009 37.2 29.8 1.2 9.9 16.6 0.01 3.52 0.142 18.4 4.3 334 0.7
1999 0.009 33 30.5 1.1 8.7 16.4 0.03 3.88 0.249 18.8 5.8 304 0.79
2000 0.009 32.9 28.3 1 8.9 16.4 0.03 2.46 0.134 13.9 5.6 304 0.9
2001 0.007 38.5 41.9 1.4 11 23.6 0.04 5.71 0.346 18.1 5.4 382 0.4
2002 0.008 37.9 45.6 1.3 10 25.1 0.01 4.05 0.348 18.9 4.8 350 0.37
2003 0.009 30.2 36.8 1.2 7.9 20.2 0.04 2.52 0.179 13.1 5.8 300 1.45
2004 0.007 33.5 37.3 1.2 9 21.4 0.02 2.49 0.207 13.4 5.6 334 0.71
2005 0.009 31.8 45.9 1.2 8.9 27.3 0.03 4.48 0.294 13.6 5.4 366 1.18
2006 0.007 30.4 28 1 8.1 17.7 0.01 2.29 0.119 12.2 5.1 283 0.72
2007 0.008 31.6 31.3 1.3 9.1 20.6 0.04 3.07 0.191 13.1 5.4 296 0.79
2008 0.009 31.7 34.4 1.2 8.5 21 0.01 2.74 0.193 12 5.2 291 0.78
2009 0.009 33.4 35.1 1.2 8.8 21.1 0.02 2.21 0.142 11.4 5.4 318 1.09
2010 0.01 32 39.1 1.4 9.2 24.3 0.02 4.33 0.263 13.3 5.3 335 0.67
2011 0.008 30 32 1.1 7.7 20.5 0.04 2.36 0.138 10.8 6.4 289 1.07
2012 0.007 31.5 26.7 1.2 8.7 19.4 0.04 2.55 0.163 10.5 6 290 0.55
2013 0.006 31.6 29.5 1.2 8.3 19.6 0.04 2.43 0.102 10.1 5.2 295 0.93
2014 0.007 32.9 36.1 1.2 8.7 23.3 0.02 3.87 0.161 10 5.1 317 1.54
2015 0.006 35 48.4 1.3 9.6 28.9 0.03 4.05 0.212 10.9 5 344 0.74
2016 0.007 35.8 50.5 1.4 10 31.6 0.03 5.3 0.299 12.7 3.1 397 0.37
2017 0.007 33.9 45.5 1.2 9.3 27.3 0.09 3.88 0.207 11.2 6.2 388 0.8
2018 0.009 30 38 1.1 7.9 24.4 0.08 2.47 0.119 8.8 6.3 299 0.97
ANNUAL MEAN CONCENTRATIONS (mg/L) & CONDUCTIVITY (µmho) - Wappinger Creek, Lowlands (Site 4)
YEAR H Ca Cl K Mg Na NH4 NO3 PO4 SO4 SiO2 Conductivity
1985 0.012 36.2 25.4 1.2 8.7 11.7 0.03 3.66 0.092 23.3 6.4 305
1986 0.019 33.2 20.5 1.2 8.6 10.4 0.02 3.22 0.044 18.1 6.9 276
1987 0.012 34.1 21.8 1.1 8.7 11.5 0.02 3.58 0.094 18.4 5.9 293
1988 0.014 32.9 23.2 1.2 8.3 12.2 0.01 3.42 0.094 18 5.8 283
1989 0.016 31.4 23.4 1.3 7.9 12.5 0.04 3.4 0.043 17.2 5.2 280
1990 0.01 32.3 23.7 1.2 8.1 13 0.02 3.62 0.078 16.5 5.7 276
1991 0.009 32.3 22.4 1.1 8.1 13 0.02 3.39 0.056 18.2 5.5 285
1992 0.012 34.6 24.1 1.1 8.8 14.1 0.02 3.27 0.055 16.5 5.2 305
1993 0.017 33.9 31.2 1.2 8.5 15.8 0.02 2.63 0.029 17.8 5.1 316
1994 0.015 34 30.2 1.1 8.1 16.3 0.01 2.18 0.032 16.1 6.1 311
1995 0.014 34.6 29.3 1.1 8.3 16.2 0.02 1.95 0.037 17 3.4 314
1996 0.012 32.1 30.4 1 7.5 16.9 0.01 2.16 0.012 15.2 5.2 299
1997 0.009 35.3 31.5 1.2 8.7 17.4 0.02 2.27 0.023 17.6 4.8 321
1998 0.01 37.2 33.1 1 8.9 18.5 0.01 2.29 0.053 18.2 4.7 337
1999 0.01 34.3 35.4 1 8 19.2 0.02 2.32 0.1 18.6 5.7 328
2000 0.008 34.4 32.8 0.9 8.4 19 0.05 2.43 0.088 14.9 5.9 324
2001 0.006 39.1 42.7 1.1 9.7 23.1 0.03 3.25 0.125 17.8 6 377
2002 0.008 38.7 48.8 1.1 9.2 25.9 0.01 2.57 0.152 19.4 5.3 359
2003 0.008 31.8 42.1 1.1 7.4 23.2 0.03 2.59 0.115 14.4 6.2 321
2004 0.008 34.3 42.2 1.1 8.3 24.2 0.01 2.51 0.141 14.5 6.1 353
2005 0.009 32.3 47.6 1.1 7.9 27.5 0.02 3.41 0.121 14.4 6 369
2006 0.008 31.4 32.4 0.9 7.6 20.6 0.01 2.17 0.073 13.1 5.5 300
2007 0.009 32.3 33.9 1.1 8.3 22.2 0.03 3.04 0.162 13.5 6 303
2008 0.01 32.4 38.1 1.1 7.9 23.4 0.01 2.4 0.11 12.7 5.6 300
2009 0.01 34.4 39.4 1.1 8.2 24.4 0.02 2.04 0.089 12.1 6 334
2010 0.01 32.7 40.8 1.2 8.2 25.2 0.02 2.53 0.107 13.2 6 330
2011 0.01 30.9 36 1.1 7.2 23.6 0.05 2.25 0.085 11.4 6.8 301
2012 0.009 32.4 29.8 1.1 8 21.9 0.04 2.08 0.088 11.3 6.4 299
2013 0.009 32.1 33.8 1.1 7.5 22.7 0.05 2.18 0.058 11 5.7 307
2014 0.009 34 40 1.1 8 25.6 0.02 3.11 0.088 10.9 5.7 325
2015 0.009 36 51.6 1.2 8.7 30.3 0.03 2.73 0.096 11.5 5.4 349
2016 0.009 36.8 51.3 1.2 9.2 31.7 0.04 3.29 0.124 13 3.4 394
2017 0.009 35 50.4 1.1 8.5 29.2 0.09 2.6 0.1 11.8 6.3 400
2018 0.011 32.1 45.1 1.1 7.5 27.9 0.09 2.53 0.074 9.9 6.8 326
MONTHLY MEAN CONCENTRATIONS (mg/L), CONDUCTIVITY (µmho) & DISCHARGE (m^3/s) - Wappinger Creek, Fern Glen (Site 2) 1986-2018
MONTH H Ca Cl K Mg Na NH4 NO3 PO4 SO4 SiO2 Conductivity Q
1 0.011 30.8 29.4 1.1 8.3 16.8 0.03 3.9 0.096 15.6 5.8 295 1.93
2 0.011 30.5 32 1 8.2 17.9 0.05 3.65 0.095 15.1 5.3 295 1.62
3 0.012 27.7 31.5 0.9 7.3 17.5 0.02 2.43 0.056 13.8 3.7 275 1.42
4 0.007 29.7 28.7 0.9 7.8 16.2 0.02 1.54 0.054 13 2.7 282 1.06
5 0.008 31.6 29.6 0.9 8.5 17 0.03 1.93 0.125 12.2 3.9 292 0.71
6 0.008 34.3 30.7 1.1 9.4 18.1 0.02 2.62 0.186 11.3 4.9 315 0.42
7 0.008 35.2 33.7 1.3 9.9 20.4 0.02 3.43 0.264 11.9 5.7 333 0.4
8 0.007 36.5 35.8 1.4 10 22.1 0.02 4.81 0.379 13.5 6.5 351 0.33
9 0.008 37.2 34 1.6 10 21.3 0.03 4.32 0.274 15 6.1 345 0.34
10 0.008 36 31.3 1.7 10 18.9 0.02 3.45 0.205 15.7 5.4 334 0.82
11 0.01 32 27.5 1.4 8.9 16.5 0.03 2.83 0.125 15.3 5.4 298 0.78
12 0.011 30.6 28 1.1 8.4 16.2 0.03 3.26 0.095 15.9 6 285 1.35
MONTHLY MEAN CONCENTRATIONS (mg/L) & CONDUCTIVITY (µmho) - Wappinger Creek, Lowlands (Site 4) 1985-2018
MONTH H Ca Cl K Mg Na NH4 NO3 PO4 SO4 SiO2 Conductivity
1 0.012 32.3 35 1 7.8 20 0.03 3.97 0.071 16.9 6.3 316
2 0.011 32.2 38.9 1 7.8 21.7 0.04 3.89 0.062 16.4 5.7 320
3 0.012 29.1 36.4 0.9 6.9 20.4 0.03 2.8 0.04 15.2 4.4 296
4 0.008 31.3 33.9 0.9 7.3 19.2 0.03 1.91 0.035 14.5 3.5 302
5 0.009 33 33.4 0.9 7.9 19.5 0.03 2.12 0.084 13.8 4.8 308
6 0.01 35.2 33.7 1 8.6 19.9 0.02 2.26 0.108 12.9 5.6 323
7 0.011 35.8 34.6 1.1 8.9 20.7 0.03 2.34 0.117 13.3 6.2 330
8 0.01 37 36.2 1.2 9.1 21.5 0.03 2.64 0.129 14.3 6.7 346
9 0.01 37.7 36 1.3 9.4 21.8 0.03 2.82 0.148 15.6 6.6 346
10 0.01 36.9 34.5 1.4 9.2 20.5 0.02 2.19 0.085 16.5 6 340
11 0.011 33.5 32.7 1.3 8.4 19.4 0.02 2.52 0.063 16.3 6 316
12 0.012 31.9 33.7 1.1 7.8 19.5 0.03 3.34 0.061 16.6 6.4 304
ANNUAL WET DEPOSITION (kg/ha)
YEAR H Ca Cl K Mg Na NH4-N NO3-N PO4 SO4 SO4-S NH4-N+NO3-N Volume_cm
1984 0.525 1.13 2.13 0.94 0.4 0.91 3 3.6 0.352 21 7.1 6.5 102.6
1985 0.72 0.7 2.24 0.17 0.23 0.73 2.2 4.8 0.202 28 9.3 6.9 102.9
1986 0.678 0.4 1.91 0.13 0.17 0.56 1.8 3.7 0.162 24 8.2 5.5 95.7
1987 0.601 0.33 1.91 0.24 0.21 0.78 1.7 3.1 0.43 20 6.8 4.8 99.1
1988 0.939 0.78 2.42 0.2 0.23 0.77 2.8 5.1 0.224 35 12 7.9 110.1
1989 0.653 0.58 3.52 0.38 0.22 0.91 2 3.9 0.216 23 7.8 6 115.9
1990 0.694 0.58 2.84 0.23 0.22 1.12 1.9 4.5 0.158 24 8 6.4 130
1991 0.668 0.49 1.52 0.15 0.16 0.55 2.2 4 0.157 24 8.1 6.1 102.7
1992 0.502 0.36 2.02 0.14 0.16 0.82 1.4 3.2 0.096 18 5.9 4.6 88.2
1993 0.565 0.52 1.95 0.17 0.21 0.88 1.5 3.4 0.043 19 6.4 4.8 99.5
1994 0.6 0.64 1.97 0.16 0.21 0.85 1.8 3.9 0.044 21 7.1 5.7 116.1
1995 0.506 0.63 2.65 0.24 0.25 1.16 1.8 3.9 0.048 18 6.1 5.7 108
1996 0.599 0.84 3.2 0.22 0.29 1.49 2.1 4.8 0.047 21 7.2 6.9 142.9
1997 0.488 0.67 1.64 0.17 0.19 0.74 1.7 3.3 0.03 18 6.1 5 96.2
1998 0.434 0.58 1.26 0.18 0.2 0.56 1.7 3 0.043 16 5.2 4.7 99.8
1999 0.387 0.61 2.19 0.17 0.23 1.07 1.2 2.8 0.045 13 4.4 4 105.2
2000 0.523 0.77 1.86 0.26 0.21 0.85 2 3.9 0.092 18 6.2 5.8 116.5
2001 0.327 0.52 1.1 0.12 0.13 0.46 1.3 2.4 0.036 13 4.3 3.7 79.7
2002 0.378 0.74 1.31 0.62 0.19 0.54 2.6 3 0.843 15 5.2 5.6 113.4
2003 0.41 0.71 2.75 0.29 0.31 1.39 1.9 3.3 0.277 15 4.9 5.1 139.7
2004 0.42 0.53 1.46 0.38 0.2 0.68 2 2.7 0.074 16 5.2 4.7 111.1
2005 0.369 0.65 1.96 0.16 0.25 0.96 1.7 2.7 0.028 15 5.1 4.4 137.1
2006 0.309 0.63 2.6 0.15 0.27 1.33 1.4 2.1 0.076 13 4.4 3.4 119
2007 0.397 0.71 1.75 0.18 0.2 0.87 1.8 2.9 0.026 15 5.1 4.7 120.7
2008 0.445 0.92 2.6 0.21 0.29 1.29 2 3.3 0.022 17 5.5 5.3 136.8
2009 0.252 0.71 1.76 0.17 0.18 0.89 1.2 2.2 0.029 9.2 3.1 3.4 109.1
2010 0.182 0.61 3 0.17 0.26 1.44 1.1 1.7 0.033 5.7 1.9 2.8 109.3
2011 0.236 0.86 2.37 0.23 0.24 1.14 2.1 2.7 0.06 9.6 3.2 4.8 164.7
2012 0.179 0.72 1.99 0.87 0.23 1.1 1.8 2.1 0.032 6.5 2.2 3.9 97.8
2013 0.197 0.66 1.37 0.22 0.19 0.75 2.3 2.1 0.074 6.6 2.2 4.4 121.7
2014 0.159 0.75 1.95 0.14 0.21 1.07 1.7 1.8 0.051 5.5 1.8 3.6 109.8
2015 0.14 0.42 1.4 0.08 0.14 0.66 1.6 1.7 0.052 3.6 1.2 3.2 103.3
2016 0.105 0.6 2.26 0.11 0.215 1.08 1.6 1.8 0.044 3.7 1.2 3.3 94
2017 0.11 0.73 2.2 0.18 0.24 1 2.4 2.1 0.101 4.3 1.4 4.5 132.7
2018 0.115 0.78 2.42 0.18 0.26 1.16 2.1 2.2 0.151 4.1 1.4 4.4 165.3
1988-2018 ANNUAL DRY DEPOSITION (kg/ha) & MEAN CONCENTRATIONS OF AEROSOLS & GASES FROM LOW-VOLUME FILTER PACKS (µg/m^3)
Year SO2-S (kg/ha) HNO3 (kg/ha) NO3-N (kg/ha) SO4-S (kg/ha) NH4-N (kg/ha) Total S (kg/ha) Total N (kg/ha) SO2 vd (cm/s) HNO3 vd (cm/s) Particulate vd (cm/s) SO2 (µg/m^3) HNO3 (µg/m^3) NO3 (µg/m^3) NH4 (µg/m^3) SO4 (µg/m^3)
1988 7.8 5.2 0.04 0.70 0.54 8.2 5.7 0.37 2.39 0.12 15.3 3.1 0.56 1.9 5.7
1989 7.4 5.1 0.03 0.69 0.48 8.1 5.6 0.37 2.38 0.12 14.7 3.0 0.41 1.6 5.4
1990 7.4 4.3 0.04 0.60 0.42 8.0 4.8 0.37 2.39 0.12 14.8 2.6 0.63 1.5 4.9
1991 7.9 4.7 0.03 0.65 0.51 8.2 5.2 0.37 2.43 0.12 14.8 3.0 0.41 1.9 5.6
1992 4.4 4.1 0.03 0.53 0.40 4.9 4.6 0.37 2.39 0.12 8.6 2.5 0.44 1.5 4.4
1993 4.2 4.5 0.03 0.49 0.35 4.7 4.9 0.37 2.39 0.12 8.2 2.7 0.39 1.2 3.9
1994 4.4 4.5 0.04 0.59 0.42 5.0 5.0 0.37 2.39 0.12 9.3 2.7 0.49 1.4 4.6
1995 4.0 0.03 0.47 0.33 4.2 0.37 2.38 0.12 2.3 0.44 1.1 3.7
1996 3.7 0.03 0.51 0.36 4.1 0.36 2.38 0.12 2.2 0.44 1.2 4.0
1997 3.4 3.4 0.03 0.43 0.32 3.8 3.7 0.36 2.36 0.11 7.7 2.0 0.42 1.2 3.5
1998 4.2 3.5 0.05 0.41 0.31 4.6 3.8 0.37 2.38 0.12 8.0 2.1 0.68 1.1 3.2
1999 3.7 3.2 0.03 0.42 0.32 4.1 3.5 0.36 2.38 0.12 7.2 2.0 0.49 1.1 3.2
2000 2.6 3.6 0.04 0.44 0.33 3.0 3.7 0.37 2.40 0.12 5.3 2.1 0.51 1.2 3.7
2001 3.8 3.6 0.03 0.50 0.34 4.0 3.8 0.37 2.37 0.12 7.9 2.3 0.44 1.3 4.5
2002 3.1 3.3 0.42 0.35 3.5 3.5 0.36 2.39 0.12 6.4 1.9 1.2 3.3
2003 2.9 3.9 0.34 3.2 0.37 2.39 0.12 6.3 2.5 3.0
2004 3.5 3.0 0.05 0.37 0.30 3.8 3.3 0.37 2.39 0.12 6.8 1.7 0.62 1.0 2.9
2005 3.6 2.9 0.04 0.44 0.30 4.0 3.3 0.37 2.39 0.12 6.8 1.7 0.57 1.0 3.5
2006 2.0 2.0 0.05 0.32 0.27 2.3 2.4 0.37 2.38 0.12 3.7 1.2 0.69 1.0 2.5
2007 2.4 1.8 0.03 0.35 0.27 2.8 2.1 0.37 2.39 0.12 4.7 1.0 0.51 1.0 2.8
2008 1.9 1.9 0.03 0.30 0.22 2.2 2.1 0.37 2.38 0.12 3.8 1.1 0.47 0.8 2.4
2009 1.4 1.7 0.04 0.24 0.18 1.7 1.9 0.36 2.38 0.12 2.9 1.0 0.57 0.6 1.9
2010 1.0 1.8 0.03 0.21 0.16 1.2 2.0 0.37 2.39 0.12 1.8 1.0 0.46 0.6 1.7
2011 0.8 1.8 0.04 0.22 0.18 1.0 2.0 0.37 2.39 0.12 1.8 1.1 0.58 0.6 1.8
2012 0.4 1.7 0.03 0.15 0.12 0.6 1.8 0.37 2.39 0.12 0.9 1.0 0.48 0.4 1.3
2013 0.3 1.4 0.03 0.16 0.13 0.4 1.6 0.37 2.38 0.12 0.8 0.8 0.51 0.5 1.3
2014 0.4 1.2 0.05 0.12 0.11 0.5 1.4 0.37 2.40 0.12 0.8 0.7 0.69 0.4 1.0
2015 0.5 1.5 0.05 0.13 0.10 0.7 1.6 0.37 2.38 0.12 1.0 0.9 0.61 0.4 1.1
2016 0.4 1.3 0.03 0.09 0.07 0.4 1.4 0.38 2.46 0.12 0.7 0.9 0.43 0.3 0.8
2017 0.2 1.2 0.04 0.09 0.07 0.3 1.4 0.37 2.39 0.12 0.4 0.8 0.54 0.3 0.8
2018 0.2 1.0 0.04 0.08 0.07 0.3 1.2 0.37 2.39 0.12 0.4 0.6 0.53 0.3 0.7
1988-2018 MONTHLY DRY DEPOSITION (kg/ha) & MEAN CONCENTRATIONS OF AEROSOLS & GASES FROM LOW-VOLUME FILTER PACKS (µg/m^3)
Month SO2-S (kg/ha) HNO3 (kg/ha) NO3-N (kg/ha) SO4-S (kg/ha) NH4-N (kg/ha) Total S (kg/ha) Total N (kg/ha) SO2 vd (cm/s) HNO3 vd (cm/s) Particulate vd (cm/s) SO2 (µg/m^3) HNO3 (µg/m^3) NO3 (µg/m^3) NH4 (µg/m^3) SO4 (µg/m^3)
1 0.391 0.158 0.005 0.016 0.013 0.396 0.174 0.25 2.01 0.08 12.0 1.3 1.12 0.84 2.3
2 0.281 0.203 0.006 0.021 0.016 0.301 0.221 0.26 2.33 0.11 8.6 1.6 0.97 0.81 2.4
3 0.231 0.301 0.006 0.030 0.022 0.260 0.326 0.31 2.67 0.13 5.8 2.0 0.71 0.83 2.6
4 0.178 0.330 0.004 0.033 0.024 0.208 0.345 0.40 2.98 0.16 3.6 2.0 0.45 0.79 2.5
5 0.207 0.372 0.003 0.042 0.030 0.248 0.406 0.47 2.87 0.15 3.3 2.1 0.30 0.91 3.0
6 0.279 0.338 0.002 0.053 0.038 0.331 0.380 0.49 2.62 0.14 4.4 2.3 0.21 1.35 4.4
7 0.276 0.324 0.001 0.058 0.045 0.319 0.354 0.47 2.44 0.13 4.6 2.3 0.14 1.69 5.1
8 0.270 0.292 0.001 0.049 0.034 0.306 0.317 0.44 2.31 0.12 4.6 2.1 0.17 1.33 4.5
9 0.186 0.199 0.002 0.027 0.020 0.212 0.218 0.41 2.19 0.11 3.7 1.6 0.34 0.97 2.9
10 0.215 0.199 0.003 0.020 0.016 0.235 0.213 0.35 2.22 0.10 4.7 1.5 0.49 0.73 2.2
11 0.186 0.112 0.002 0.010 0.009 0.196 0.123 0.29 2.05 0.08 6.9 1.2 0.67 0.69 1.9
12 0.283 0.104 0.003 0.012 0.010 0.294 0.114 0.24 1.86 0.07 9.3 1.0 0.87 0.75 2.1