Preparation: Before class, prepare six bags of soils with the below mentioned types of confetti.. The ratios are approximate. Feel free to use whatever colors of confetti you have on hand, pieces of paper (hole-punch construction paper or laminated colored paper) or other materials to represent the pollen. You can use visibly different soil types for each ‘layer’ with pollen, but this is not necessary. You can also just tell the students that the soil layers might look alike now, but they look different when scientists collect them.
Once you have prepared the zip-loc bags with the soil and confetti, disperse the bags to your groups of students. If you can’t make six groups, it would be advisable to give one group two layers (probably the simpler layers, ie combine layer 3 with another layer). Once students have identified the ‘pollen’ based on the charts they have, they will be able to reconstruct the land use changes in the Hudson Valley over the last 400 years. You can keep the zip-loc bags with the materials for future use.
Note: A lesson on the paleoclimate of the Hudson Valley is also available in the first module, and explores sediment layers that are much older.
Engage: Show students the sediment core and ask: What do you think we can discover about the history of a place using the sediment layers. Ask: How far into the past can we go? Students will probably think about fossils or the Grand Canyon. Explain that when we collect a sediment core, we are getting a slice of the soil’s layers. There are many differences between layers, including the tiny, fossilized pollen grains found within them. Ask: how can scientists tell what kind of pollen is in a sediment core? Explain that they will become ‘scientists’ to discover the paleoclimate of the Hudson Valley. Another option is to bring in a flower with pollen. They could observe the pollen under a microscope. Remind students of the difference between pollen and spores.
Explore: Distribute the materials to each group of students: one layer (bag with ‘pollen’), tweezers, and a paper plate. Students should sift through their sediment layers and separate out each of the different pollen types. Allow enough time to discover what layer they have and what type of climate may have existed during this period, using the information on their student guide. Once all groups have completed their work, they should compare their results using the class data chart on their worksheet. This should allow a discussion of the history of climate change in the Valley.
Explain: Since each type of pollen has a distinct shape, scientists can find out what plant produced the pollen. By discovering what types of plants lived during each time period, scientists can infer what the climate was like during that time, and even how many of each type of plant lived during that period. They can also draw conclusions about how long it took for different changes to take place-for instance, how long did it take from the last ice age until the appearance of marsh plants? The speed that plant communities migrate into an area can help scientists understand how plants are currently migrating around the world, and what might happen when the temperatures increase in the future. Scientists use more recent sediment layers to learn about ecological changes and events such as the incidence of fire, species introductions or local extinctions, and even nuclear weapons testing. Scientists from Lamon-Doherty have collected pollen samples throughout the Hudson River area, and are continuing to collect samples to create a more complete picture. . “Background Reading About Dr. Peteet” available below under “Lesson Resources” contains more information about this effort.
Extend: Students can investigate other regions of the world to determine the paleoclimate data. Information can be found at: Climates of the Past (http://bit.ly/11a4PsU). Students could also be led on a guided walk and discuss what a ‘layer’ at your schoolyard or a nearby woodlot would look like.
Evaluate: Students should be able to explain how the ecosystem of the Hudson Valley has changed since 1609 and provide evidence to support their answer.